Viginia Council on Human Rights
Washington Building, Suite 1202
1100 Bank Street
Richmond, VA 23219
Tel: (804) 225-2292
§ 3.1-796.128:1. Intentional interference with a guide or leader dog; penalty
A. It is unlawful for a person to, without just cause, willfully impede or interfere with the duties performed by a dog if the person knows or has reason to believe the dog is a guide or leader dog. A violation of this subsection is punishable as a Class 3 misdemeanor.
B. It is unlawful for a person to, without just cause, willfully injure a dog if the person knows or has reason to believe the dog is a guide or leader dog. A violation of this subsection is punishable as a Class 1 misdemeanor.
"Guide or leader dog" means a dog that (i) serves as a dog guide for a blind person as defined in § 51.5-60 or for a person with a visual disability, (ii) serves as a listener for a deaf or hard-of-hearing person as defined in § 51.5-111, or (iii) provides support or assistance for a physically disabled or handicapped person.
Acts 1995, c. 209.
§ 46.2-933. When vehicles to stop for pedestrian guided by dog or carrying white, red-tipped white, or metallic cane
Whenever a totally or partially blind pedestrian crossing or attempting to cross a highway in accordance with the provisions of § 46.2-923 is guided by a dog guide or carrying a cane which is predominantly metallic or white in color, with or without a red tip, the driver of every vehicle approaching the intersection or place of crossing shall bring his vehicle to a full stop before arriving at such intersection or place of crossing, unless such intersection or place of crossing is controlled by a law-enforcement officer or traffic light. Any person violating any provision of this section shall be guilty of a Class 3 misdemeanor.
Acts 1989. c. 727; Acts 1990, c. 555.
§ 46.2-934. Failure to use cane or guide dog not contributory negligence
Nothing contained in § 46.2-933 shall be construed to deprive any totally or partially blind or otherwise incapacitated person not carrying such a cane or walking stick or not being guided by a dog, of the rights and privileges conferred by law upon pedestrians crossing highways. Nor shall the failure of such totally or partially blind or otherwise incapacitated person to carry a cane or walking stick, or to be guided by a guide dog on the highways or sidewalks of the Commonwealth, be held to constitute nor be evidence of contributory negligence.
Acts 1989, c. 727.
§ 51.5-44. Rights of persons with disabilities in public places and places of public accommodation
A. A person with a disability has the same rights as other persons to the full and free use of the streets, highways, sidewalks, walkways, public buildings, public facilities, and other public places.
B. A person with a disability is entitled to full and equal accommodations, advantages, facilities, and privileges of all common carriers, airplanes, motor vehicles, railroad trains, motor buses, streetcars, subways, boats or any other public conveyances or modes of transportation, restaurants, hotels, lodging places, places of public accommodation, amusement or resort, and other places to which the general public is invited subject only to the conditions and limitations established by law and applicable alike to all persons.
C. Each town, city or county, individually or through transportation district commissions, shall ensure that persons with disabilities have access to the public transportation within its jurisdiction by either (i) use of the same transportation facilities or carriers available to the general public or (ii) provision of paratransit or special transportation services for persons with disabilities or (iii) both. All persons with disabilities in the jurisdiction's service area who, by reason of their disabilities, are unable to use the service for the general public shall be eligible to use such paratransit or special transportation service. No fee that exceeds the fee charged to the general public shall be charged a person with a disability for the use of the same transportation facilities or carriers available to the general public. Paratransit or special transportation service for persons with disabilities may charge fees to such persons comparable to the fees charged to the general public for similar service in the jurisdiction service area, taking into account especially the type, length and time of trip. Any variance between special service and regular service fares shall be justifiable in terms of actual differences between the two kinds of service provided.
D. Nothing in this title shall be construed to require retrofitting of any public transit equipment or to require the retrofitting, renovation, or alteration of buildings or places to a degree more stringent than that required by the applicable building code in effect at the time the building permit for such building or place is issued.
E. Every totally or partially blind person shall have the right to be accompanied by a dog, in harness, trained as a guide dog, every deaf or hearing-impaired person shall have the right to be accompanied by a dog trained as a hearing dog on a blaze orange leash, and every mobility-impaired person shall have the right to be accompanied by a dog, in a harness or backpack, trained as a service dog in any of the places listed in subsection B without being required to pay an extra charge for the dog; provided that he shall be liable for any damage done to the premises or facilities by such dog. The provisions of this section shall apply to persons accompanied by a dog that is in training, at least six months of age, and is (i) in harness, provided such person is an experienced trainer of guide dogs; (ii) on a blaze orange leash, provided such person is an experienced trainer of hearing dogs; (iii) in a harness or backpack, provided such person is an experienced trainer of service dogs; or (iv) wearing a jacket identifying the recognized guide, hearing or service dog organization, provided such person is an experienced trainer of the organization identified on the jacket.
As used in this chapter, "hearing dog" means a dog trained to alert its owner by touch to sounds of danger and sounds to which the owner should respond.
As used in this chapter, "service dog" means a dog trained to accompany its owner for the purpose of carrying items, retrieving objects, pulling a wheelchair or other such activities of service or support.
As used in this chapter, "mobility-impaired person" means any person who has completed training to use a dog for service or support because he is unable to move about without the aid of crutches, a wheelchair or any other form of support or because of limited functional ability to ambulate, climb, descend, sit, rise or perform any related function.
Acts 1985, c. 421, § 51.01-44; Acts 1987, c. 500; Acts 1989, c. 326; Acts1994, c. 108; Acts 2001, c. 443.
§ 51.5-45. Right of persons with disabilities to housing accommodations
A. All persons with disabilities shall be entitled to full and equal opportunity to acquire, as other members of the general public, any housing accommodations offered for sale, rent, lease, or compensation, subject to the conditions and limitations established by law and applying alike to all persons. "Housing accommodations" for the purpose of this section means any real property, or portion thereof, which is used or occupied or is intended, arranged, or designed to be used or occupied, as the home, residence, or sleeping place of one or more human beings, but shall not include any single family residence the occupant or owner of which rents, leases, or furnishes for compensation not more than one room therein.
B. Every visually-impaired person who has a guide dog, any hearing-impaired person who has a hearing dog, and every mobility-impaired person with a service dog, as those terms are defined in § 51.5-44, shall be entitled to full and equal access with such dog to all housing accommodations provided for in this section. He shall not be required to pay extra compensation for such dog but shall be liable for any damage done to the premises by such dog.
C. Nothing in this section shall require any person offering for sale, renting, leasing, or providing for compensation real property to modify that real property or provide a higher degree of care for a person with a disability than for a person who is not disabled, except as provided in § 36-99.5, nor shall anything in this section require any person who is selling, renting, leasing, or providing for compensation real property to sell, rent, lease or provide such property to any person who would constitute a direct threat to the property or safety of others.
Acts 1985, c. 421, § 51.01-45; Acts 1987, c. 500.
§ 51.5-46. Remedies
A. Any circuit court having jurisdiction and venue pursuant to Title 8.01, on the petition of any person with a disability, shall have the right to enjoin the abridgement of rights set forth in this chapter and to order such affirmative equitable relief as is appropriate and to award compensatory damages and to award to a prevailing party reasonable attorneys' fees, except that a defendant shall not be entitled to an award of attorneys' fees unless the court finds that the claim was frivolous, unreasonable or groundless, or brought in bad faith. Compensatory damages shall not include damages for pain and suffering. Punitive or exemplary damages shall not be awarded.
B. An action may be commenced pursuant to this section any time within one year of the occurrence of any violation of rights under this chapter. However, such action shall be forever barred unless such claimant or his agent, attorney or representative has commenced such action or has filed by registered mail a written statement of the nature of the claim with the potential defendant or defendants within 180 days of the occurrence of the alleged violation. Any liability for back pay shall not accrue from a date more than 180 days prior to the filing of the notice or the initial pleading in such civil action and shall be limited to a total of 180 days, reduced by the amount of other earnings over the same period. The petitioner shall have a duty to mitigate damages.
C. The relief available for violations of this chapter shall be limited to the relief set forth in this section.
D. In any action in which the petitioner is represented by the Virginia Office for Protection and Advocacy, no attorneys' fees shall be awarded, nor shall the Virginia Office for Protection and Advocacy have the authority to institute any class action under this chapter.
Acts 1985, c. 421, § 51.01-46; Acts 1990, c. 458; Acts 1992, c. 627; Acts 2002, c. 572. Amended by Acts 2005, c. 681, eff. Jan. 1, 2006.