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What is intelligent disobedience?

When a dog disobeys a command it means he refuses to do it. Intelligent disobedience means he has a valid reason for refusing to do it. For example, if a blind person gives a guide dog a command to "forward" and there is an obstacle in the path that could injure the handler, the dog refuses the forward command. When a guide refuses a command, it is then up to the handler to determine why and work out what to do about it.